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Sex work in Tallinn, Estonia: the sociospatial penetration of sex work into society.
PhD, Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease, National Centers for HIV, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop E02, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA; saral@cdc.gov.
It is important to describe and understand the underlying patterns and dynamics that govern sex work in societies undergoing rapid political and social changes, its heterogeneity across populations, and its evolution through time in order to inform future research, sound policy formation, and programme delivery.
To describe the socioeconomic and cultural determinants, organisational structure, distinct categories, and spatial patterning of sex work in Tallinn, Estonia, and identify recent temporal changes in sex work patterns.
In‐depth interviews with key informants; naturalistic observations of sex work and drug use venues, geo‐mapping of sex work sites, review of media, public policy, and commissioned reports, and analyses of existing data.
Sex work takes place in a hierarchy of locations in Tallinn ranging from elite brothels and “love flats” to truck stops. These sites vary in terms of their public health importance and social organisation. There are full time, part time, and intermittent male and female sex workers. Among others, the taxi driver, madam and the bartender are central roles in the organisation of sex work in Tallinn. Cell phone and internet technology enable sex work to be highly dispersed and spatially mobile.
Future research and programmatic service delivery or outreach efforts should respond to the changing profile of sex work in Tallinn and its implications for STD/HIV epidemiology.
Sex work is a dangerous profession and sex workers are exposed to serious risks. 1 Beyond sex workers’ own risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV acquisition, in the absence of condom use sex workers may play an important part in the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI) into the general population. 2 Differences in the social context 3 and social organisation of sex work 4 ,5 may have important implications for sex workers’ risk of acquiring and transmitting STI and for the delivery of clinical and social services. Understanding the social context and social organisation of sex work is also necessary for planning and implementing effective STD/HIV interventions targeting sex workers. 1 Societal collapse, poverty, war, and globalisation have all been associated with changes in the volume and societal patterning of sex work. 3 ,6 It is important to describe and understand the underlying patterns and dynamics that govern sex work in societies, its heterogeneity across populations, and its evolution through time. 4 ,5 ,6 ,7 In several previous studies, we described organisational patterns of sex work in several Russian locales, noting marked diversity in the organisation and marketing of sexual services in different Russian cities. 4 ,5 ,7 This report describes the results of a rapid assessment in Tallinn, Estonia, which attained independence from the former USSR in 1991.
Tallinn, Estonia, is a particularly interesting city for the study of sex work because of its historical and demographic characteristics. Following 50 years of occupation by the Soviet Union, Estonia gained its independence in 1991. The transition from Soviet occupation to autonomy brought about major societal upheaval economically and socially. Many men and women lost their jobs, positions, and security as Soviet factories and military installations closed, creating substantial unemployment, especially in the north eastern region of Ida‐Virumaa abutting Russia but also in Tallinn. Many of the unemployed were ethnic Russians who were originally imported from the Soviet Union to control the military, industry, and governance in Estonia. As ethnic Estonians emerged into social, economic, and political prominence with independence, ethnic Russians found themselves without the status and privilege they formerly enjoyed. As in most transitional societies, sex work has expanded into an important mode of coping with the economic inequality and societal unrest of the past 15 years.
Estonia is a small country with a population of 1.4 million and the capital city of Tallinn has 400 000 residents. The small population size has implications for the practice of sex work since, unlike more populated cities, both sex workers and clients express concern about being recognised. Consequently, observable street sex work is limited in Tallinn. Conversely, there are demographic pressures that increase both the demand for and supply of sexual services. Like many other European countries, Estonia has undergone the second demographic transition and Estonians now spend a larger portion of their adult lives childless and unmarried. 8 The fertility rate in Estonia declined steadily from 2.02 in 1980 to 1.37 in 2003. Fertility in Estonia has remained below replacement levels since independence in 1991. The mean age at first marriage increased from 24.4 and 22.6 in 1980 to 28.2 and 25.7 in 2003 for men and women, respectively and marriages per 1000 declined from 8.78 in 1980 to 4.21 in 2003. 9.

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